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Development and Change
ABSTRACT: CAMPFIRE programmes have been hailed internationally for the innovative ways in which they have sought to confront the challenges of some of Africa’s most marginal regions through the promotion of local control over wildlife management. In Zimbabwe, CAMPFIRE has been cast as an antidote to the colonial legacy of technocratic and authoritarian development which had undermined people’s control over their environment and criminalized their use of game.
The CAMPFIRE programme in Zimbabwe: Payments for wildlife services
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe the evolution over the first 12 years (1989–2001) of Zimbabwe's Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE), a community-based natural resource management programme in which Rural District Councils, on behalf of communities on communal land, are granted the authority to market access to wildlife in their district to safari operators. These in turn sell hunting and photographic safaris to mostly foreign sport hunters and eco-tourists.
Devolution and stewardship in Zimbabwe's CAMPFIRE programme
Zimbabwe's CAMPFIRE programme is widely regarded as one of Africa's most successful contemporary conservation initiatives. It permits the residents of communal lands—basically poor, black people—to share in the benefits generated by wildlife utilization on those lands. Despite its achievements the programme still faces fundamental challenges. In particular the development strategies of households in CAMPFIRE areas are focusing on land uses that are incompatible with wildlife—population in-migration, the extension of cropping and increased livestock numbers
The political ecology of poverty alleviation in Zimbabwe's Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE)
ABSTRACT: The CAMPFIRE program in Zimbabwe is one of a ‘new breed' of strategies designed to tackle environmental management at the grassroots level. CAMPFIRE aims to help rural communities to manage their resources, especially wildlife, for their own local development. The program's central objective is to alleviate rural poverty by giving rural communities autonomy over resource management and to demonstrate to them that wildlife is not necessarily a hindrance to arable agriculture, “but a resource that could be managed and ‘cultivated' to provide income and food”.
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