Allocation and distribution of Revenue
What are the 2002 CAMPFIRE Revenue Guidelines?
Natural resource producer communities who “live and suffer the cost socially and economically and have the responsibility of preserving as well as managing the natural resource concerned” receive not less than 55% of gross revenue.
RDCs receive a maximum of 26% of gross revenue for management activities. Producer communities may also receive a portion of this revenue if management activities, such as resource monitoring (game scouts), are directly managed by the community;
RDCs receive a maximum of 15% of gross revenue as a levy;
The CAMPFIRE Association receives 4% of gross revenue as a levy.
RDCs must open a separate CAMPFIRE Bank Account. Revenue from all CAMPFIRE activities should be banked in this account. Where large sums of money are being deposited, the RDC should use a current account to meet recurrent expenses, while the balance of the deposit is kept in a savings account so as to maximise the interest that can be earned. Outside of the direct payment system, all revenue due to the producer communities and the Association must be disbursed within one month of receipt of such revenue.
Who are the beneficiaries of revenue?
“Those who live and suffer the cost socially and economically and have the responsibility of preserving as well as managing the natural resource concerned”.
This shows two important ways of defining the producer communities. These are:
Social and economic cost : Means that those who live closest to and bear the cost of the natural resources should be the main beneficiaries. This is very important where wildlife is concerned.
Management activities : Means that those who invest time and money in management activities should be considered the producers.
Using the CAMPFIRE Revenue Guidelines the RDCs and their CAMPFIRE stakeholders should develop a district level policy. This policy can be enforced by adopting it as a bylaw. In the case of wildlife, a common method of defining producer wards is to define the ward in which the animal is hunted and killed as the producer ward.
What has happened to CAMPFIRE revenue in the past?
Between 1989 and 2001 the US$20 million, that has been defined as CAMPFIRE revenue, has been allocated as follows:
What lessons have been learned?
By experimenting with different models of revenue allocation and distribution, the RDCs and their producer communities now have a much greater understanding of the role of financial incentives in natural resource management. The major lessons learned include:
Size does count : The size of the dividends devolved to sub-district level will affect the communities' attitude and commitment to natural resource management. Whist RDCs are sometimes recognised as being “cash strapped”, their ability to earn long-term revenue from natural resource management will be determined by the size of the benefits devolved in the short-term.
Transparency and accountability: RDCs are partners and gatekeepers for producer communities. RDCs should not delay the disbursement of CAMPFIRE revenue to the producer communities. When this happens intense suspicion can develop between the RDC and the producer community.
Role of CAMPFIRE Revenue Guidelines: Due to the different interpretation of past CAMPFIRE Revenue Guidelines and the absence of mechanisms to enforce them, wildlife producer communities have received varying proportions of the gross revenue. This has reduced the ability of producer communities to manage wildlife and other natural resources.
Sustainability of CAMPFIRE: The challenge of building a sustainable CAMPFIRE programme requires the CAMPFRIRE Association to support the ability of the RDCs and their communities to increase their natural resources based revenues. Most of the Association's institutional needs have been donor funded resulting in little incentive to collect levies from members. This needs now to be corrected and full levies remitted to ensure continued support.
Why monitor CAMPFIRE revenues?
At a national level, monitoring the allocation and disbursement of CAMPFIRE revenue is important because it is one measure of performance. The monitoring information will also be used to measure the RDCs' adherence to the CAMPFIRE Revenue Guidelines and where necessary to enforce them. In addition, the financial monitoring information is used by the CAMPFIRE Association to invoice its members and to ensure financial sustainability.
At district level, RDCs need to monitor their CAMPFIRE revenue to ensure that they are generating the maximum possible revenue from the sustainable use of natural resources.
At ward level, producer communities need to monitor CAMPFIRE revenue earned so that they recover the correct amount from the RDC.
How will monitoring be done? The CAMPFIRE Association will use the bi-annual or quarterly CAMPFIRE returns as a monitoring tool (See Appendix 2b).
Distribution of CAMPPFIRE revenue should be carried out according to the 2002 CAMPFIRE Revenue Guidelines. RDCs are responsible for the collection, allocation and disbursement of CAMPFIRE revenue. It is important that a district level policy is developed by each RDC for the collection, allocation and disbursement of CAMPFIRE revenues. Disbursement of CAMPFIRE revenue to the producer communities should take place 30 days after receipt of such revenue as agreed by CAMPFIRE members.